In some patients, high blood pressure is caused by blockage in the artery to the kidney, a condition known as renal vascular hypertension. Vascular interventionalists can often treat these blockages without surgery. In most cases, hospitalization and general anesthesia are not required. There is no surgical incision –just a small nick in the skin — and no stitches are needed. Often, patients may return to normal activity shortly after the procedure. The goal of the treatment in renovascular disease is normalization of the blood pressure or improvement of its control with medications, and improvement or preservation of kidney function. Angioplasty of the renal artery is relatively low risk and can greatly improve blood pressure control and thus prevent further damage to the kidney. Balloon angioplasty and stenting has generally replaced surgery as the first-line treatment for renal arterial blockages.